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April 2005

4/01/05    They Made America
   Companion site to the PBS special 'Who Made America.' Find out about the extraordinary innovators whose ideas and entrepreneurial spirit gave birth to landmark advances like the steamboat and the 747 jetliner, and cultural touchstones like the Barbie doll and CNN. Profiles of each innovator can be viewed chronologically, geographically, and by category
4/02/05    Explore Art
   Browse many of the works of art on display at the Getty Museum. Site also features a Video Gallery and a listing of new acquisitions to the museum.
4/03/05    Shipwreck Central
   Eco-Nova dive teams have been traveling the planet searching for and filming shipwreck sites for over a decade. Our goal in all our documentaries has always been to bring you to underwater sites that you might otherwise not see and to tell good factual stories to compliment our amazing underwater visuals. Our Sea Hunters documentaries are our best to date. Working with world renowned author, Clive Cussler, marine archaeologist and author, James Delgado, and our dive team, headed up by Mike and Warren Fletcher, we have taken you on searches for some of the worlds most famous shipwrecks. Over this time we have conversed and traded wreck information with many of you. In fact, we now have so many avid divers, historians and shipwreck enthusiasts contacting us with information and questions that it has proven to be impossible to keep up a real, ongoing dialogue.
4/04/05    American FactFinder
   Site by the U.S. Census Bureau: 'Your source for population, housing, economic, and geographic data.'
4/05/05    IRS: Free Online Filing
   Whoever said there is no such thing as a free lunch may have been right. But for millions of eligible taxpayers this year, there is Free File. Free File is online tax preparation and electronic filing through a partnership agreement between the IRS and the Free File Alliance, LLC. In other words, you can e-file... free. Related sites: Yahoo 2005 Tax Guide / Free File Alliance Companies / Federal and State Tax Forms.
 BONUS SITE:   IRS : 2005 'Dirty Dozen' Tax Schemes
      The Internal Revenue Service presents its annual listing of notorious tax scams, the 'Dirty Dozen,' reminding taxpayers to be wary of schemes that promise to eliminate taxes or otherwise sound too good to be true. The 'Dirty Dozen' for 2005 includes several new scams that either manipulate laws governing charitable groups, abuse credit counseling services or rely on refuted arguments to claim tax exemptions. The agency also sees the continuing spread of identity theft schemes preying on people through e-mail, the Internet or the phone, sometimes with con artists posing as representatives of the IRS.
4/06/05    Presidential Tax Returns
   Individual income tax returns -- including those of public figures -- are private information, protected by law from unauthorized disclosure. Indeed, the Internal Revenue Service is barred from releasing any taxpayer information whatsoever, except to authorized agencies and individuals. Like all other citizens, U.S. presidents enjoy this protection of their privacy. Since the early 1970s, however, most presidents have chosen to release their returns publicly. In the hope of making this information more widely available, the Tax History Project at Tax Analysts has compiled an archive of presidential tax returns. Note: to view these files, you will need a free copy of the Adobe Acrobat Reader.
4/07/05    The Columbia Guide to Standard American English
   A vigorous assessment of how our language is best written and spoken and how we can use it most effectively, this guide is the ideal handbook of language etiquette: friendly, sensible, reliable, and fun to read. Its 6,500 entries contain thousands of examples, both descriptive and prescriptive, and feature 4,300 hyperlinked cross-references.
4/08/05    Academic Success Center
   Welcome to the George Washington University Counseling Center's online guide to better academic results! Here you'll find a number of topics and links to resources that will help you study more effectively and improve academically. Use the links on the right to jump to any topic that pertains to your own situation. Forms and charts may be downloaded and printed as worksheets for your personal use.
4/09/05    Smithsonian Education
   Educational content for students, families, and educators. Find teaching materials, links to hundreds of online resources, and access to the world's largest museum complex.
4/10/05    Annual Credit Report
   This central site allows you to request a free credit file disclosure, commonly called a credit report, once every 12 months from each of the nationwide consumer credit reporting companies: Equifax, Experian and TransUnion. You can also request your report by phone or mail. Monitoring and periodically reviewing your credit report is an effective tool in fighting identity theft.
4/11/05    How the Papacy Works
   The Catholic population, meaning those who have been baptized by the Roman Catholic Church, cracked the one billion mark in 2001, according to the church's Pontifical Yearbook. Catholicism is by far the largest Christian denomination in the world, and more than 62 million Americans belong to the Catholic Church. As the world mourns the passing of Pope John Paul II, the Catholic Church will have to select a new pope for the first time in a quarter century. This HowStuffWorks site examines the jurisdiction of the Papacy of the Roman Catholic Church, discusses how someone becomes pope, and reviews some of the duties a pope performs.
 BONUS SITE:   How tax-friendly is your state?
      The Tax Foundation, a policy research group, estimates the average taxpayer's total state and local tax burden for 2005 in each of the 50 states and the District of Columbia. / IRS: Free Online Filing / Yahoo Tax Center
4/12/05    Google Scholar
   Google Scholar enables you to search specifically for scholarly literature, including peer-reviewed papers, theses, books, preprints, abstracts and technical reports from all broad areas of research. Use Google Scholar to find articles from a wide variety of academic publishers, professional societies, preprint repositories and universities, as well as scholarly articles available across the web.
 BONUS SITE:   Alternative Minimum Tax
      Before mailing your federal income tax return, check to make sure you aren't subject to the alternative minimum tax. In recent years, more and more people have found themselves subject to the AMT. The tax law gives preferential treatment to some kinds of income and allows special deductions and credits for some kinds of expenses. Taxpayers who benefit from these provisions of the law may have to pay an additional tax called the alternative minimum tax. It is a separate tax computation that, in effect, eliminates many deductions and credits and creates a tax liability for an individual who would otherwise pay little or no tax. Related sites: Guide to Alternative Minimum Tax / Tax Guide: The Alternative Minimum Tax / Yahoo Tax Center: The Alternative Minimum Tax
4/13/05    USA Statistics in Brief
   USA Statistics in Brief is a supplement to the Statistical Abstract of the United States published by the U.S. Census Bureau and presents national summary data and state population estimates.
 BONUS SITE:   Comparison of State and Local Tax Burdens Across the Nation
      Site by the Tax Foundation. Each state's total tax burden represents a combination of federal, state, and local tax burdens. The first set of tables display the state and local tax burden in each of the 50 states between 1970 and 2005. It can be instructive, however, to strip out federal taxes and compare just the tax burdens of states and localities. The second set of tables first rank states' state-local tax burdens, then add back in federal taxes to see how rankings change.
4/14/05    Indicators of School Crime and Safety: 2004
   A joint effort by the Bureau of Justice Statistics and National Center for Education Statistics, this annual report examines crime occurring in school as well as on the way to and from school. It provides the most current detailed statistical information to inform the Nation on the nature of crime in schools.This report presents data on crime at school from the perspectives of students, teachers, principals, and the general population from an array of sources.
4/15/05    Email Abuse
   The use of electronic mail to advertise unethically, harass, annoy, or cause harm to the email recipient. Abuse can take the form of bulk email, threatening email, email sent with the intent to slow productivity of, or cause damage to, the recipient's system. It is a world wide problem and anyone with an email address is vulnerable. is dedicated to informing users of this potential abuse and providing them with the tools to avoid becoming a victim and to fight back at Email Abusers.
 BONUS SITES:   Tax Tips for 2005
      Latest tax tips for 2005 from the Internal Revenue Service. / Americans Spend 6.6 Billion Hours on Taxes
  Tax-friendly places 2005
      Every year, the Tax Foundation measures the total tax bill for each state, creating a list of the most - and least - tax-friendly states in the country. See the full list at this site.
  IRS Home Page / IRS: Free Online Filing / IRS: Tax Information for Individuals / Yahoo! Tax Center / More >>
4/16/05    Create Your Own Web Page
   So you want to create a web page but don't have any idea how to do it? Well, that's what this article is all about. This site starts from the basics and works up to some of the more advanced techniques.
4/17/05    Word Count
   This site looks at how we use words and how often we use them. Presenting the 86,800 most frequently used English words, ranked in order of commonality. The site uses data from the British National Corpus, a collection of more than 100 million words representing a cross-section of English usage.
4/18/05    The Genographic Project
   The National Geographic Society, IBM, geneticist Spencer Wells, and the Waitt Family Foundation have launched the Genographic Project, a five-year effort to understand the human journey - where we came from and how we got to where we live today. This unprecedented effort will map humanity's genetic journey through the ages. Related sites: The Biggest Family Tree Ever / Cyndi's Genealogy List.
4/19/05    Commission on the Intelligence Capabilities of the United States Regarding Weapons of Mass Destruction
   The Commission on the Intelligence Capabilities of the United States Regarding Weapons of Mass Destruction was established by Executive Order 13328, which was signed by the President on February 6, 2004. The Commission is charged with assessing whether the Intelligence Community is sufficiently authorized, organized, equipped, trained, and resourced to identify and warn in a timely manner of, and to support United States Government efforts to respond to, the development and transfer of knowledge, expertise, technologies, materials, and resources associated with the proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction, related means of delivery, and other related threats of the 21st Century and their employment by foreign powers (including terrorists, terrorist organizations, and private networks). This site also features the final report submitted to the President on March 31, 2005.
4/20/05    The Pulitzer Prizes
   Pulitzer Prize winners for 2005. This site also includes a history of the Pulitzer and a timeline of all winners since 1917.
4/21/05    The New England Journal of Medicine
   Online version of this famous journal containing research and review articles on diseases and clinical practice.
4/22/05    In the Line of Duty
   The history of America's postal service is filled with stories of those who risked their lives for the mail. The events of September and October 2001 have brought the courage and strength of these workers to light again. "In the Line of Duty: Dangers, Disasters and Good Deeds" is an exhibition dedicated to America's postal workers. The exhibition opened at the National Postal Museum on October 8th, 2003.
4/23/05    The Old Farmer's Almanac
   Since 1792, The Old Farmer's Almanac has published useful information for people in all walks of life: tide tables for those who live near the ocean; sunrise tables and planting charts for those who live on the farm; recipes for those who live in the kitchen; and forecasts for those who don't like the question of weather left up in the air. This online version contains much of the information published in the print Almanac.
4/24/05    U.S. Economy at a Glance
   This Department of Labor site presents key economic statistics including: Unemployment Rate, Average Hourly Earnings, Consumer Price Index and much more.
4/25/05    Rulers of the World
   This site contains lists of heads of state and heads of government (and, in certain cases, de facto leaders not occupying either of those formal positions) of all countries and territories, going back to about 1700 in most cases. Also included are the subdivisions of various countries (the links are at the bottom of the respective country entries), as well as a selection of international organizations. Recent foreign ministers of all countries are listed separately.
 BONUS SITE:   Hubble Celebrates 15th Anniversary with Spectacular New Images
      During the 15 years NASA’s Hubble Space Telescope has orbited the Earth, it has taken more than 700,000 photos of the cosmos; images that have awed, astounded and even confounded astronomers and the public. NASA released new views today of two of the most well-known objects Hubble has ever observed: the Whirlpool Galaxy and the Eagle Nebula. These new images are among the largest and sharpest Hubble has ever taken. They were made with Hubble's newest camera, the Advanced Camera for Surveys. The images are so incredibly sharp, they could be enlarged to billboard size and still retain stunning details. Related site: Hubble Gallery.
4/26/05    Britannica Concise Encyclopedia
   From the one-volume desk reference, this reference resource is for information on the people, places, and events of yesterday and today.
 BONUS SITE:   Where Does My Gasoline Come From
      The United States consumes over 20 million barrels (840 million gallons) of petroleum products each day, almost half of it in the form of gasoline used in over 200 million motor vehicles with combined travel over 7 billion miles per day. Gasoline is made from crude oil, which was formed from the remains of tiny aquatic plants and animals that lived hundreds of millions of years ago. These remains were covered with layers of sediment, which over millions of years of extreme pressure and high temperatures became the mix of liquid hydrocarbons (an organic chemical compound of hydrogen and carbon) that we know as crude oil. Because crude oil is made up of a mixture of hydrocarbons, refineries break down these hydrocarbons into different products. These 'refined products' include gasoline, diesel fuel, heating oil, jet fuel, liquefied petroleum gases, residual fuel oil, and many other products.
4/27/05    Occupational Outlook Handbook
   The Occupational Outlook Handbook is a nationally recognized source of career information, designed to provide valuable assistance to individuals making decisions about their future work lives. Revised every two years, the Handbook describes what workers do on the job, working conditions, the training and education needed, earnings, and expected job prospects in a wide range of occupations.
4/28/05    The Elements of Style
   Asserting that one must first know the rules to break them, this classic reference book is a must-have for any student and conscientious writer. Intended for use in which the practice of composition is combined with the study of literature, it gives in brief space the principal requirements of plain English style and concentrates attention on the rules of usage and principles of composition most commonly violated.
4/29/05    Currency Converter
   This site provides a multi-lingual Currency Converter with up to date exchange rates provided from leading market data contributors and is filtered for validity. To get the exchange rates for any of the 164 currencies, select the desired currencies from the lists below, as well as the date, language, and amount for which you would like to conduct the currency conversion.
4/30/05    Nolo: Law For All
   This site helps people handle their own everyday legal matters -- or learn enough about them to make working with a lawyer a more satisfying experience -- we publish reliable, plain-English books, software, forms and this website. Some of our products have been in print almost 30 years, which is how long Nolo has been in business. Everything we publish is regularly revised, updated and improved by our staff of lawyer-editors, to make sure that it's the best it can be.

Refdesk Home
[ Search Net ] [ Facts Subject Index ] [ Facts Encyclopedia ] [ Newspapers USA/World ] [Report Broken Links ]
[ Fast Facts ] [ First Things First ] [ Quick Reference ] [ Site Map ] [Contact Us ]